By Jan Hoffman

New York Times News Service

Tobacco kills

Tobacco use causes nearly 6 million deaths worldwide each year, including 480,000 in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If tobacco use trends continue, the global death tally is projected to reach 8 million deaths annually by 2030.

It has been one of the most pressing unanswered questions in public health: Do e-cigarettes actually help smokers quit? Now, the first large, rigorous assessment offers an unequivocal answer: yes.

The study, published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that e-cigarettes were nearly twice as effective as conventional nicotine replacement products, like patches and gum, at quitting smoking a year after starting them.

The success rate was still low — 18 percent among the e-cigarette group, compared to 9.9 percent among those using traditional nicotine replacement therapy — but many researchers who study tobacco and nicotine said it gave them the clear evidence they had been looking for.

“This is a seminal study,” said Dr. Neal Benowitz, chief of clinical pharmacology at the University of California, San Francisco, an expert in nicotine absorption and tobacco-related illnesses, who was not involved in the project. “It is so important to the field.”

The study was conducted in Britain and funded by the National Institute for Health Research and Cancer Research UK. It followed 886 smokers assigned randomly to use either e-cigarettes or traditional nicotine replacement therapies. Both groups also participated in at least four weekly counseling sessions, an element regarded as critical for success.

The findings could give new legitimacy to e-cigarette companies like Juul, which have been under fire from the government and the public for contributing to what the Food and Drug Administration has called an epidemic of vaping among teenagers. But they could also exacerbate the difficulty of keeping the devices away from young people who have never smoked while making them available for clinical use.

“There is an unavoidable tension between protecting kids from e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, which is also very important,” Benowitz said.

E-cigarettes provide the nicotine smokers crave without the toxic tar and carcinogens that come from inhaling burning tobacco. But regulators in the United States, Britain and elsewhere have not approved them to be marketed as smoking cessation tools.

“Health professionals have been reluctant to recommend their use because of the lack of clear evidence from randomized controlled trials. This is now likely to change,” said Peter Hajek, the lead author of the study and a professor of clinical psychology at Queen Mary University of London, which coordinated the clinical trials through public “stop-smoking clinics.”

The New England Journal devoted much of its current issue to e-cigarettes, publishing two editorials and a letter, and the collection embodies the tangled public health debate over the devices. One editorial — written by Belinda ­Borrelli, a behavioral health expert and Dr. George O’Connor, a pulmonologist — pumped the brakes on inclinations to embrace e-cigarettes.

They noted that 80 percent of the study participants who had quit by using e-cigarettes were still vaping at one year, while only 9 percent of the nicotine replacement therapy group was still using nicotine products. That raised concerns, they wrote, about sustained nicotine addiction and the unknown health consequences of long-term e-cigarette use.

The editorial recommended that e-cigarettes be taken up when other cessation approaches, including behavioral counseling, have failed; that patients use the lowest dose of nicotine possible; that health care providers establish a clear timeline for e-cigarette use.

Another editorial implored the Food and Drug Administration to ban all nicotine flavors for vaping devices because of their appeal to adolescents.

The clinical trial took place from May 2015 to February 2018. Because the smokers were recruited at the clinics, they were already predisposed to quitting, a feather on the scale that could have affected results. The participants were typically middle-aged, smoked between half a pack and a pack a day and had already tried quitting.