HISTORY

Highlight: In 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, were shot to death in Sarajevo by Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip — an act which sparked World War I.

In 1778, the Revolutionary War Battle of Monmouth took place in New Jersey; it was from this battle that the legend of “Molly Pitcher” arose.

In 1836, the fourth president of the United States, James Madison, died in Montpelier, Virginia.

In 1838, Britain’s Queen Victoria was crowned in Westminster Abbey.

In 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed in France, ending the First World War.

In 1939, Pan American Airways began regular trans-Atlantic air service with a flight that departed New York for Marseilles, France.

In 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Alien Registration Act, also known as the Smith Act, which required adult foreigners residing in the U.S. to be registered and fingerprinted. Corporate lawyer Wendell Willkie received the Republican presidential nomination at the party’s convention in Philadelphia (U.S. Senate Minority Leader Charles McNary of Oregon was nominated for vice president).

In 1944, the Republican national convention in Chicago nominated New York Gov. Thomas Dewey for president and Ohio Gov. John Bricker for vice president.

In 1950, North Korean forces captured Seoul, the capital of South Korea.

In 1964, civil rights activist Malcolm X declared, “We want equality by any means necessary” during the Founding Rally of the Organization of Afro-American Unity in New York.

In 1989, about 1 million Serbs gathered to mark the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo.

In 1996, the Citadel voted to admit women, ending a 153-year-old men-only policy at the South Carolina military school.

Ten years ago: Marking the first anniversary of the transfer of power from the U.S.-led coalition to Iraq’s interim government, President George W. Bush, addressing the nation from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, rejected suggestions that he set a timetable for withdrawal or send in more troops as he counseled patience for Americans who were questioning the war’s painful costs.

Five years ago: The Supreme Court ruled, 5-4, that Americans had the right to own a gun for self-defense anywhere they lived. The FBI announced the arrests of 10 suspected deep-cover agents, including Anna Chapman, the chic 28-year-old daughter of a Russian diplomat. (All 10 were later returned to Russia in a swap.)

One year ago: Ahmed Abu Khattala, the Libyan militant accused of masterminding the deadly Benghazi attacks in 2012, pleaded not guilty to conspiracy in Washington nearly two weeks after being captured by U.S. special forces.

BIRTHDAYS

Comedian-movie director Mel Brooks is 89. Comedian-impressionist John Byner is 78. Actor Bruce Davison is 69. Actress Kathy Bates is 67. Actress Alice Krige is 61. College and Pro Football Hall of Famer John Elway is 55. Actress Jessica Hecht is 50. Actress Mary Stuart Masterson is 49. Actor John Cusack is 49. Jazz musician Jimmy Sommers is 46. Actress Camille Guaty is 39. Rock musician Tim Nordwind (OK Go) is 39. Rock musician Mark Stoermer (The Killers) is 38.

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