Future mission to the sun is 'a life's dream' for some

Amina Khan / Los Angeles Times /

Published Mar 15, 2012 at 05:00AM / Updated Nov 19, 2013 at 12:31AM

LOS ANGELES — The chest-high rack of electronics Justin Kasper is assembling in a Massachusetts office park will fit in a shoe box before he’s done.

It won’t be much to look at — a few inches across, shaped rather like a coffee cup attached to a Kindle — but to Kasper, it’ll serve as eyes across nearly 100 million miles of space.

In less than seven years, that cup will be journeying to the center of the solar system to scoop up bits of the sun.

“This really has been a life’s dream,” said Kasper, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass.

In 2018, NASA is scheduled to launch a spacecraft from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida to fly, Icarus-like, dangerously close to our star.

Fitted with a select set of instruments, Solar Probe Plus will address two questions that solar physicists have tussled with for decades: How does the corona, that ghostly, spiked halo seen during a total solar eclipse, heat to more than a million degrees, far hotter than the sun’s surface? And what powers the solar wind, the stream of charged particles that flows from the corona?

An up-close look at the sun may ultimately help scientists predict solar flares, as well as coronal mass ejections — “solar storms” like those launched at Earth last week. These events send a barrage of high-energy particles crashing against the Earth’s magnetic field, at times disabling satellites, wiping out power grids, forcing airlines to reroute flights and potentially exposing astronauts to fatal doses of radiation.

Scientists have sent probes to the solar system’s edge, but never so near its heart. Coming within 3.7 million miles of the sun’s surface — 25 times closer than Earth — the 1,350-pound unmanned spacecraft will heat to 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit and endure 512 times the sunlight of vessels orbiting Earth.

The mission “will undoubtedly have impact on our ideas about how life operates throughout the universe — if life does operate throughout the universe — how our planet evolved and how we’re going to contend with the further exploration of space,” said Richard Fisher, director of NASA’s heliophysics division.

Half a century in the making, with an estimated price tag of $1.2 billion and barely 88 pounds allotted to experimental hardware, the project spawned fierce competition among heliophysicists for a piece of the action.